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{\rtf1\ansi {\colortbl;\red0\green0\blue0;\red0\green0\blue255;\red0\green255\blue255;\red0\green255\blue0;\red255\green0\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;\red255\green255\blue0;\red255\green255\blue255;}{\fonttbl{\f0\froman\cpg0\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f1\fswiss\cpg0\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f2\froman\cpg1252\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f3\fswiss\cpg1252\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f4\froman\cpg1251\fcharset204 Times New Roman;}{\f5\fswiss\cpg1251\fcharset204 Arial;}{\f6\froman\cpg1250\fcharset238 Times New Roman;}{\f7\fswiss\cpg1250\fcharset238 Arial;}{\f8\froman\cpg1257\fcharset186 Times New Roman;}{\f9\fswiss\cpg1257\fcharset186 Arial;}{\f10\froman\cpg1254\fcharset162 Times New Roman;}{\f11\fswiss\cpg1254\fcharset162 Arial;}{\f12\froman\cpg1253\fcharset161 Times New Roman;}{\f13\fswiss\cpg1253\fcharset161 Arial;}{\f14\froman\cpg1255\fcharset177 Times New Roman;}{\f15\fswiss\cpg1255\fcharset177 Arial;}}{\stylesheet {\sbasedon222\f2\fs20 Normal;}}\paperw12240\paperh15840\margl2824\margr3760\margt1440\margb720 \sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn2824\margrsxn3760\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols1\colsx60 \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li4\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\tx2232 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-15\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 130{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\expndtw-3 ITS CAUSES}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li0\fi0\ri22\sb227\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw5\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 tears and loud lamentations P\super 1\nosupersub  What was it due to that \expndtw2 all their enthusiasm and eagerness to establish Greek \expndtw6 supremacy in distant lands at once melted away on \expndtw1 reaching the Hyphasis ? It is true the Greek soldiers were \expndtw4 war-worn, home-sick, disease-stricken, and destitute;\super 2 \nosupersub\expndtw3 and many of them were ill-equipped, for it was now increasingly difficult to transport and supply garments \expndtw8 from Greece, and not a few were depressed because \expndtw2 their friends had perished by disease or fallen victims to \expndtw11 sanguinary battles. But was there any other ground \expndtw2 for their conduct which doubtless savoured of mutiny ? \expndtw7 Plutarch gives us some clue to this mystery, for he \expndtw4 indicates that even after the contest with Poros the \expndtw9 Macedonian forces were considerably dispirited, and \expndtw4 it was with reluctance that they had advanced as far as \expndtw6 the Hyphasis at Alexander's bidding. He says : "The \expndtw3 battle with Poros depressed the spirits of the Macedo\-\expndtw8 nians and made them very unwilling to advance far\-\expndtw9 ther into India. For, as it was with the utmost diffi\-\expndtw11 culty they had beaten him when the army he led \expndtw6 amounted only to 20,000 infantry and 2,000 cavalry, \expndtw2 they now most resolutely opposed Alexander when, he \expndtw11 insisted that they should cross the Ganges."\super 3\nosupersub  The \expndtw9 Greeks had been impressed by the heroism and skill \expndtw18 of Indian soldiers. Indeed, according to Arrian, \expndtw5 "in the art of war they were far superior to the other \expndtw9 nations by which Asia was at that time inhabited/'\super 4 \nosupersub\expndtw5 That_ is perhaps why the Greeks showed even after \expndtw9 fighting against Poros that they had "no stomach for}\par {\pntext\pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li68\fi367\ri0\sb324\sa0\sl-169\slmult0\tx551 \b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs20  *\tab}\pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li68\fi367\ri0\sb324\sa0\sl-169\slmult0\tx551 \f2\fs20{\*\pn\pnlvlblt\pnstart-1\pnindent116\pnf2{\pntxtb *}}\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 {\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw1\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 Plutarch, Ch. LXII, M'crindle's \i Invasion by Alexander, \i0 p. 310;\line \expndtw3 Arnan, V, 28, \i Ibid, \i0 p. 127.}\par {\pntext\pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li68\fi367\ri0\sb40\sa0\sl-187\slmult0\tx551 \b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs20  *\tab}\pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li68\fi367\ri0\sb40\sa0\sl-187\slmult0\tx551 \f2\fs20{\*\pn\pnlvlblt\pnstart-1\pnindent116\pnf2{\pntxtb *}}\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 {\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw10\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 cf.  Koinos:   "We have conquered all the world, but are\line \expndtw5 ourselves destitute of all things"\loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'97\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0 Curtius, IX, 3, \i Ibid, \i0 p. 229.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li371\fi112\ri0\sb7\sa0\sl-187\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw5\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 Plutarch, LXII, \i Ibid., \i0 p.   310.   Plutarch has   here   under-\expndtw6 -nated the strength of the army, and instead >of the Hyphasis \expndtw1 .as mentioned the Ganges \super\expndtw-1 4\nosupersub  Arrian, V, \i 4, Ibid., \i0 p. 85.}\par }